A new idea of human identity, originating in the citystates of fourteenth- and fifteenth-century Italia, that was based on wish for excellence in scholarship, creative work, and education. The humanist motion spread to northern The european union, France, England, and anywhere else, and ongoing to flourish until the mid-seventeenth century. Amongst its even more familiar fictional figures are, in Italy, Dante Alighieri, Francesco Petrarca (known while Petrarch), Giovanni Boccaccio, Baldassare Castiglione, and NiccolГІ Machiavelli; in England, Thomas More, Francis Bacon, and John Milton; in France, FranГ§ois Rabelais and Michel de Montaigne. Books placing forth an ideal of the well-formed individual, leader, or commonwealth are a main aspect of the humanist activity, from Leonardo Bruni's Dialogues (пњ±пњґпњ°пњ±вЂ“пњ¶) to Roger Ascham's Schoolmaster (пњ±пњµпњ·пњ°), Machiavelli's The Prince (пњ±пњµпњ±пњі, publ. пњ±пњµпњіпњІ), Castiglione's The Courtier (ca. пњ±пњµпњ±пњ¶, publ. пњ±пњµпњІпњё), and More's Thinking about (пњ±пњµпњ±пњ¶). Through the Renaissance the word humanista intended nothing more than a teacher of Latin. But the Latin classics proved to be the important thing to the era's renewed comprehension of the individual's goals and ideas. Latin authors addressed issues like the dignity of man, the role of fate, and the strength of human will certainly: the factors in life which make for man happiness, or flourishing. HUMANISM 145
(Greek was to some extent less familiar, at least at first, among the humanists; Petrarch and Dante could not examine it. )
The Renaissance's new studia humanitatis clashes with the earlier medieval version of education, which consisted of the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic) and the quadrivium (arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy). Inside the medieval structure, there was little room intended for the study of background or meaningful philosophy. At this point, though, education could be based upon the moral ideas recommended by the ancients in their fictional and philosophical speculations.
The main element terms of the Italian language humanists are fame, good fortune,...
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